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Cryptocurrency- What it is & how it works?

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Cryptocurrency- What it is & how it works?

With the Industrial evaluation i.e. in the phase of Industry 4.0 one will have a hard time finding a major bank, a big accounting firm, a prominent software company or a government that did not research cryptocurrencies, publish a paper about it or start a so-called block chain-project.

Cryptocurrency what it is?

Crypto currency is a new form of money offer while posing risks. It can also be said as digital cash i.e mysterious bits of computer codes. But major difference is that its values fluctuate wildly. Some people say these currency will someday replace money as we know it. What exactly are these cryptocurrencies, and what makes people think they are worth anything at all? To answer these questions, let’s first look at how money evolved.

Uses of money

Money serves as a store of value, a means of exchange for goods and services, and a unit of account that measures value. Before money, human societies exchanged goods and services directly—a bushel of grain for a pig, say. This was not very efficient. As societies grew more complex, commodity monies were developed—from seashells to copper, silver, and gold. Some states introduced fiat money—which has no intrinsic value other than the promise to pay—such as paper money in eighth century China under the Tang dynasty.
Most early forms of fiat money were neither very stable nor widely accepted, as people did not believe the issuer would honor its commitment to redeem the money. Governments were tempted to print more money to buy goods or raise wages, which fueled inflation (think of people moving cash around in wheelbarrows in post–World War I Germany). Modern central banks seek to maintain price stability by regulating the supply of money on behalf of governments.

Bookkeeping and ledgers

An increasingly extensive and complex financial system gave rise to the need for trusted intermediaries and credible accounting systems. The development of double-entry bookkeeping in Renaissance Italy was a major innovation that strengthened the role of large private banks. In modern times, central banks emerged at the apex of payment systems. With computerized bank ledgers, the coordinating role of central banks increased.

How do such ledgers work? Financial institutions adjust the positions of their account holders in their internal ledgers, while the central bank validates transactions among financial institutions in a central ledger.

For example, Riya uses money from her account in bank “A” to buy goods from Rohan, who has an account in bank “B”. Bank “A” debits the money from Riya’s account. The central bank moves money from bank “A” to bank “B” and records the transaction in its central ledger. Bank “B” then adds the money to Rohan’s account. 

As you can see, the system is based on trust in the central bank and in its ability to safeguard the integrity of the central ledger and ensure that the same money is not spent twice.

With many cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, there is no need for a trusted central agent. Instead, they rely on distributed ledger technology, such as block chain, to construct a ledger (effectively a database) that is maintained across a network. To ensure that the same cryptocurrency is not spent twice, each member of the network verifies and validates transactions using technologies derived from computing and cryptography. Once a decentralized consensus is achieved among members of the network, the transaction is added to the ledger, which is validated. The ledger provides a complete history of the transactions associated with a particular cryptocurrency that is permanent and cannot be manipulated by a single entity. This ability to achieve consensus on the validity of transactions between accounts in a distributed network is a foundational technological shift.

Network members who verify and validate transactions are usually rewarded with newly minted cryptocurrency. Many cryptocurrencies are also pseudo-anonymous: holders of the currency have two keys. One is public, such as an account number; another, private key is required to complete a transaction.
Examples
So, to continue the previous example, Riya wants to buy goods from Rohan using a cryptocurrency. To do so, she initiates a transaction with her private key. Riya is identified in the network by her public key, ABC, and Rohan is identified by his, XYZ. Network members verify that ABC has the money she wants to transfer to XYZ by solving a cryptography puzzle. Once the puzzle is solved, the transaction is validated, a new block representing the transaction is added to the blockchain, and the money is transferred from ABC’s wallet to XYZ’s.

Benefits, risks involved

The first crypto currency was introduced is BITCOIN firstly introduced in 2009 by the group of programmers, currently there are more than 1500 cryptocurrency has been introduced till date. along with Bitcoin, Ether and Ripple are the most widely used.

Despite the hype, cryptocurrencies still don’t fulfil the basic functions of money as a store of value, means of exchange, and unit of account. Because their value is highly volatile, they have little use so far as a unit of account or a store of value. Limited acceptance for payment restricts their use as a medium of exchange. Unlike with fiat money, the cost of producing many cryptocurrencies is high, reflecting the large amount of energy needed to power the computers that solve the cryptographic puzzles. Finally, decentralized issuance implies that there is no entity backing the asset, so acceptance is based entirely on users’trust.
Cryptocurrencies and their underlying technologies offer benefits but also carry risks. Distributed ledger technology could reduce the cost of international transfers, including remittances, and foster financial inclusion. Some payment services now make overseas transfers in a matter of hours, not days. The technology can provide benefits beyond the financial system.
For example, it can be used to securely store important records, such as medical histories and land deeds. On the other hand, the pseudo-
Anonymity of many cryptocurrencies makes them vulnerable to use in money laundering and terrorism financing, if no intermediary checks the integrity of transactions or the identity of the people making them.
 Cryptocurrencies could also eventually present challenges for central banks were they to affect control over the money supply and therefore the conduct of monetary policy.

Cryptocurrency what it is: Dawn of a new economy

Mostly due to its revolutionary properties cryptocurrencies have become a success their inventor, Satoshi Nakamoto, didn‘t dare to dream of it. While every other attempt to create a digital cash system didn‘t attract a critical mass of users, Bitcoin had something that provoked enthusiasm and fascination. Sometimes it feels more like religion than technology.
Cryptocurrencies are digital gold. Sound money that is secure from political influence. Money that promises to preserve and increase its value over time. Cryptocurrencies are also a fast and comfortable means of payment with a worldwide scope, and they are private and anonymous enough to serve as a means of payment for black markets and any other outlawed economic activity

But while cryptocurrencies are more used for payment, its use as a means of speculation and a store of value dwarfs the payment aspects. Cryptocurrencies gave birth to an incredibly dynamic, fast-growing market for investors and speculators. Exchanges like Okcoin, poloniex or shapeshift enables the trade of hundreds of cryptocurrencies. Their daily trade volume exceeds that of major European stock exchanges.

At the same time, the praxis of Initial Coin Distribution (ICO), mostly facilitated by Ethereum‘s smart contracts, gave life to incredibly successful crowdfunding projects, in which often an idea is enough to collect millions of dollars. In the case of “The DAO” it has been more than 150 million dollars.

In this rich ecosystem of coins and token, you experience extreme volatility. It‘s common that a coin gains 10 percent a day – sometimes 100 percent – just to lose the same at the next day. If you are lucky, your coin‘s value grows up to 1000 percent in one or two weeks.


The revolution is already happening. Institutional investors start to buy cryptocurrencies. Banks and governments realize that this invention has the potential to draw their control away. Cryptocurrencies change the world. Step by step. You can both stand beside and observe – or you can become part of history in the making.

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